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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front. Med.    2021, Vol. 15 Issue (1) : 11-32
Human microbiome and prostate cancer development: current insights into the prevention and treatment
Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam(), Seyed Ali Momeni
Uro-Oncology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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The huge communities of microorganisms that symbiotically colonize humans are recognized as significant players in health and disease. The human microbiome may influence prostate cancer development. To date, several studies have focused on the effect of prostate infections as well as the composition of the human microbiome in relation to prostate cancer risk. Current studies suggest that the microbiota of men with prostate cancer significantly differs from that of healthy men, demonstrating that certain bacteria could be associated with cancer development as well as altered responses to treatment. In healthy individuals, the microbiome plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis of body metabolism. Dysbiosis may contribute to the emergence of health problems, including malignancy through affecting systemic immune responses and creating systemic inflammation, and changing serum hormone levels. In this review, we discuss recent data about how the microbes colonizing different parts of the human body including urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and skin might affect the risk of developing prostate cancer. Furthermore, we discuss strategies to target the microbiome for risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of prostate cancer.

Keywords microbiome      prostate cancer      prevention      treatment      molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE)      biomarker     
Corresponding Author(s): Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam   
Just Accepted Date: 21 January 2020   Online First Date: 30 June 2020    Issue Date: 11 February 2021
 Cite this article:   
Solmaz Ohadian Moghadam,Seyed Ali Momeni. Human microbiome and prostate cancer development: current insights into the prevention and treatment[J]. Front. Med., 2021, 15(1): 11-32.
Fig.1  Schematic representation of the effect of microbiome dysbiosis on prostate cancer development.
Samples Method Findings
Pre-biopsy urine samples (before cancer diagnosis) 16S rDNA sequencing A higher prevalence of proinflammatory bacteria associated with urogenital infections (prostatitis, bacterial vaginosis, and urinary tract infections) in biopsy proven prostate cancer men (Streptococcus anginosus, Anaerococcus lactolyticus, Anaerococcus obesiensis, Actinobaculum schaalii, Varibaculum cambriense, Propionimicrobium lymphophilum) [29]
Voided urine, EPS1, seminal fluid of patients with prostate cancer and BPH2 16S rRNA gene sequencing with PCR-DGGE analysis Significant microbial difference in EPS of patients with prostate cancer compared to BPH ones, suggesting the role of dysbiosis in the pathobiology of prostate cancer
The prostate cancer group had a considerably increased number of Bacteroidetes bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes bacteria, Lachnospiraceae, Propionicimonas, Sphingomonas, and Ochrobactrum, and a decrease in Eubacterium and Defluviicoccus compared to the BPH group [155]
Rectal swab of patients prior to undergoing transrectal biopsy of prostate (before cancer diagnosis) 16S rRNA gene sequencing Abundance of the proinflammatory species (Bacteroides and Streptococcus) in prostate cancer patients
Bacteria associated with carbohydrate metabolism pathways in prostate cancer group were significantly higher than non-cancer groups, whereas bacteria associated with folate, biotin, and riboflavin were less abundant [98]
Tumoral, peritumoral, and non-tumoral prostate tissue after RP3 UDPS4 of 16S rRNA Microbial composition varies according to the nature of the tissue
In all types of samples, the major phylum was Actinobacteria (dominant genera: Propionibacterium), followed by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria
Staphylococcus spp. were more represented in the tumor/peri-tumor tissues [97]
Fecal samples of healthy male and men with localized, biochemically recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer 16S rDNA sequencing Significant difference in alpha diversity in gut microbiome of prostate cancer patients compared to non-cancer individuals
Significant difference in gut microbiome composition of patients receiving oral ATT5 [246]
Fecal swab, voided urine (after prostatic massage) before performing the biopsy 16S rRNA NGS6 The urinary microbiome composition of prostate cancer patients differs from non-cancer patients
An increased abundance of the Veillonella, Streptococcus, and Bacteroides, and a decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium, Lactobaccili, and Actinetobacter in cancer patients
An increased abundance of Bacteroides in fecal samples of prostate cancer patients [195]
Prostate tumor tissue of prostate biopsy and post-RP tissue samples after RP Host-derived whole-genome sequencing Presence of a core, bacteria-rich, prostate microbiome (Enrichment of the Proteobacteria) [196]
RP tissue samples Shotgun metagenomic sequencing Non-sterile prostatic tissue in prostate cancer patients
Escherichia, Propionibacterium, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas constituting the core of the prostate microbiome
No significant difference between the microbiome and local progression of prostate tumor
Correlated expression of Pseudomonas genes and human small RNA genes providing primary evidence that Pseudomonas infection may inhibit metastasis [197]
The Swedish Twin Registry Data retrieving from national registries, between 1963 and 2004 Significant association of periodontal disease due to proinflammatory Gram-negative bacteria with an increased risk of prostate cancer [260]
Prostatic fluid samples of prostate cancer patients and non-prostate cancer people 16S rRNA gene sequencing Beneficial role of microbiome in maintaining the microenvironment stability of the prostate
Significant difference of several species (genera Alkaliphilus, Enterobacter, Lactococcus, Cronobacter, Carnobacterium, and Streptococcus) between the cancer group and non-cancer group [198]
TURP7 and/or RP specimens from prostate cancer patients and TURP specimen from BPH patients PCR screening primer Significant increase of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in prostate cancer patients in comparison with the BPH patients [261]
Prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer or BPH Immunohistochemistry, PCR, and DNA sequencing Presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of prostate cancer and BPH [262]
Fecal swab from prostate cancer patients DNA sequencing Significant difference between gut microbiome of prostate cancer patients compared to controls
Higher abundance of Bacteriodes massiliensis in prostate cancer patients in comparison with benign controls
Higher abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectalie among controls compared to cancer patients [87]
Pre- and post transrectal biopsy urine, and fecal samples 16S rRNA gene NGS5 Alteration of urinary microbiome after prostate biopsy, suggesting introduction of fecal bacteria into the urinary tract through prostate biopsy [263]
Tab.1  Studies evaluating the microbiome in prostate cancer patients
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