Please wait a minute...
Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front Med    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (3) : 290-300     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-013-0277-z
Therapeutic effects of thalidomide in hematologic disorders: a review
Miao Xu1, Yu Hou2, Lei Sheng3, Jun Peng1()
1. Department of Hematology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China; 2. Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China; 3. Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
Download: PDF(247 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks

The extensive autoimmune, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer applications of thalidomide have inspired a growing number of studies and clinical trials. As an inexpensive agent with relatively low toxicity, thalidomide is regarded as a promising therapeutic candidate, especially for malignant diseases. We review its therapeutic effects in hematology, including those on multiple myeloma, Waldenstroem macroglobulinemia, lymphoma, mantle-cell lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and graft-versus-host disease. Most studies have shown satisfactory results, although several have reported the opposite. Aside from optimal outcomes, the toxicities and adverse effects of thalidomide should also be examined. The current work includes a discussion of the mechanisms through which the novel biological effects of thalidomide occur, although more studies should be devoted to this aspect. With appropriate safeguards, thalidomide may benefit patients suffering from a broad variety of disorders, particularly refractory and resistant diseases.

Keywords thalidomide      multiple myeloma      lymphoma     
Corresponding Authors: Peng Jun,   
Issue Date: 05 September 2013
URL:     OR
Fig.1  Mechanism of thalidomide on MM cells. Thalidomide arrests MM cells in the G phase by inhibiting the bond between stromal and MM cells. According to studies, metastasis is correlated with vascular proliferation. Thalidomide can decrease cytokine production by stromal cells, such as VEGF, thereby preventing angiogenesis. Thalidomide inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-β, which assists the growth of MM cells and promotes IFN-γ secretion, which leads to the apoptosis of MM cells. It also stimulates T cells and NKT cells by increasing the IL-2 level. Both T and NKT cells have cytotoxic effects on MM cells.
1 Franks ME, Macpherson GR, Figg WD. Thalidomide. Lancet 2004; 363(9423): 1802–1811
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16308-3 pmid:15172781
2 Wood AJJ, Alexanian R, Dimopoulos M. The treatment of multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 1994; 330(7): 484–489
doi: 10.1056/NEJM199402173300709 pmid:8289856
3 Combination chemotherapy versus melphalan plus prednisone as treatment for multiple myeloma: an overview of 6,633 patients from 27 randomized trials. Myeloma Trialists’ Collaborative Group. J Clin Oncol 1998; 16(12): 3832–3842
4 Vacca A, Loreto MD, Ribatti D, Stefano RD, Gadaleta-Caldarola G, Iodice G, Caloro D, Dammacco F. Bone marrow of patients with active multiple myeloma: angiogenesis and plasma cell adhesion molecules LFA-1, VLA-4, LAM-1, and CD44. Am J Hematol 1995; 50(1): 9–14
doi: 10.1002/ajh.2830500103 pmid:7545353
5 Vacca A, Ribatti D, Roncali L, Ranieri G, Serio G, Silvestris F, Dammacco F. Bone marrow angiogenesis and progression in multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol 1994; 87(3): 503–508
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1994.tb08304.x pmid:7527645
6 Segeren CM, Sonneveld P, van der Holt B, Vellenga E, Croockewit AJ, Verhoef GE, Cornelissen JJ, Schaafsma MR, van Oers MH, Wijermans PW, Fibbe WE, Wittebol S, Schouten HC, van Marwijk Kooy M, Biesma DH, Baars JW, Slater R, Steijaert MM, Buijt I, Lokhorst HM; Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Study Group. Overall and event-free survival are not improved by the use of myeloablative therapy following intensified chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma: a prospective randomized phase 3 study. Blood 2003; 101(6): 2144–2151
doi: 10.1182/blood-2002-03-0889 pmid:12456509
7 Singhal S, Mehta J, Desikan R, Ayers D, Roberson P, Eddlemon P, Munshi N, Anaissie E, Wilson C, Dhodapkar M, Zeddis J, Barlogie B. Antitumor activity of thalidomide in refractory multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 1999; 341(21): 1565–1571
doi: 10.1056/NEJM199911183412102 pmid:10564685
8 Suzuki K. Current therapeutic strategy for multiple myeloma. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2013; 43(2): 116–124
doi: 10.1093/jjco/hys215 pmid:23293370
9 Barillé-Nion S, Barlogie B, Bataille R, Bergsagel PL, Epstein J, Fenton RG, Jacobson J, Kuehl WM, Shaughnessy J, Tricot G. Advances in biology and therapy of multiple myeloma. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program) 2003; 2003(1): 248–278
doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2003.1.248 pmid:14633785
10 Hideshima T, Anderson KC. Molecular mechanisms of novel therapeutic approaches for multiple myeloma. Nat Rev Cancer 2002; 2(12): 927–937
doi: 10.1038/nrc952 pmid:12459731
11 Richardson P, Anderson K. Thalidomide and dexamethasone: a new standard of care for initial therapy in multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(3): 334–336
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.03.8851 pmid:16365174
12 Hideshima T, Chauhan D, Shima Y, Raje N, Davies FE, Tai YT, Treon SP, Lin B, Schlossman RL, Richardson P, Muller G, Stirling DI, Anderson KC. Thalidomide and its analogs overcome drug resistance of human multiple myeloma cells to conventional therapy. Blood 2000; 96(9): 2943–2950
13 De Sanctis JB, Mijares M, Suárez A, Compagnone R, Garmendia J, Moreno D, Salazar-Bookaman M. Pharmacological properties of thalidomide and its analogues. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2010; 4(2): 144–148
doi: 10.2174/187221310791163026 pmid:20307255
14 Drucker L, Uziel O, Tohami T, Shapiro H, Radnay J, Yarkoni S, Lahav M, Lishner M. Thalidomide down-regulates transcript levels of GC-rich promoter genes in multiple myeloma. Mol Pharmacol 2003; 64(2): 415–420
doi: 10.1124/mol.64.2.415 pmid:12869646
15 D’Amato RJ, Lentzsch S, Anderson KC, Rogers MS. Mechanism of action of thalidomide and 3-aminothalidomide in multiple myeloma. Semin Oncol 2001; 28(6): 597–601
doi: 10.1053/sonc.2001.28601 pmid:11740816
16 Barlogie B, Tricot G, Anaissie E, Shaughnessy J, Rasmussen E, van Rhee F, Fassas A, Zangari M, Hollmig K, Pineda-Roman M, Lee C, Talamo G, Thertulien R, Kiwan E, Krishna S, Fox M, Crowley J. Thalidomide and hematopoietic-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(10): 1021–1030
doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa053583 pmid:16525139
17 Rajkumar SV, Blood E, Vesole D, Fonseca R, Greipp PR; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Phase III clinical trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a clinical trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(3): 431–436
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.03.0221 pmid:16365178
18 Wijermans P, Schaafsma M, Termorshuizen F, Ammerlaan R, Wittebol S, Sinnige H, Zweegman S, van Marwijk Kooy M, van der Griend R, Lokhorst H, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgium Cooperative Group HOVON. Phase III study of the value of thalidomide added to melphalan plus prednisone in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the HOVON 49 Study. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28(19): 3160–3166
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.1610 pmid:20516439
19 Cavo M, Zamagni E, Tosi P, Cellini C, Cangini D, Tacchetti P, Testoni N, Tonelli M, de Vivo A, Palareti G, Tura S, Baccarani M. First-line therapy with thalidomide and dexamethasone in preparation for autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Haematologica 2004; 89(7): 826–831
20 Bladé J, Rosi?ol L. Advances in therapy of multiple myeloma. Curr Opin Oncol 2008; 20(6): 697–704
doi: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e3283136984 pmid:18841053
21 Cavo M, Rajkumar SV, Palumbo A, Moreau P, Orlowski R, Bladé J, Sezer O, Ludwig H, Dimopoulos MA, Attal M, Sonneveld P, Boccadoro M, Anderson KC, Richardson PG, Bensinger W, Johnsen HE, Kroeger N, Gahrton G, Bergsagel PL, Vesole DH, Einsele H, Jagannath S, Niesvizky R, Durie BG, San Miguel J, Lonial S; International Myeloma Working Group. International Myeloma Working Group consensus approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma patients who are candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation. Blood 2011; 117(23): 6063–6073
doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-02-297325 pmid:21447828
22 Morgan GJ, Davies FE, Gregory WM, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Navarro Coy N, Cook G, Feyler S, Johnson PR, Rudin C, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Russell NH, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients destined for autologous stem-cell transplantation: MRC Myeloma IX randomized trial results. Haematologica 2012; 97(3): 442–450
doi: 10.3324/haematol.2011.043372 pmid:22058209
23 Moreau P, Avet-Loiseau H, Facon T, Attal M, Tiab M, Hulin C, Doyen C, Garderet L, Randriamalala E, Araujo C, Lepeu G, Marit G, Caillot D, Escoffre M, Lioure B, Benboubker L, Pégourié B, Kolb B, Stoppa AM, Fuzibet JG, Decaux O, Dib M, Berthou C, Chaleteix C, Sebban C, Traullé C, Fontan J, Wetterwald M, Lenain P, Mathiot C, Harousseau JL. Bortezomib plus dexamethasone versus reduced-dose bortezomib, thalidomide plus dexamethasone as induction treatment before autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood 2011; 118(22): 5752–5758, quiz 5982
doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-05-355081 pmid:21849487
24 Morgan GJ, Gregory WM, Davies FE, Bell SE, Szubert AJ, Brown JM, Coy NN, Cook G, Russell NH, Rudin C, Roddie H, Drayson MT, Owen RG, Ross FM, Jackson GH, Child JA; National Cancer Research Institute Haematological Oncology Clinical Studies Group. The role of maintenance thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma: MRC Myeloma IX results and meta-analysis. Blood 2012; 119(1): 7–15
doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-06-357038 pmid:22021371
25 Broyl A, Kuiper R, van Duin M, van der Holt B, el Jarari L, Bertsch U, Zweegman S, Buijs A, Hose D, Lokhorst HM, Goldschmidt H, Sonneveld P; Dutch-Belgian HOVON group; German GMMG Group. High cereblon expression is associated with better survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide maintenance. Blood 2013; 121(4): 624–627
doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-06-438101 pmid:23233657
26 Bergsagel PL, Mateos MV, Gutierrez NC, Rajkumar SV, San Miguel JF. Improving overall survival and overcoming adverse prognosis in the treatment of cytogenetically high-risk multiple myeloma. Blood 2013; 121(6): 884–892
doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-05-432203 pmid:23165477
27 Owen RG, Treon SP, Al-Katib A, Fonseca R, Greipp PR, McMaster ML, Morra E, Pangalis GA, San Miguel JF, Branagan AR, Dimopoulos MA. Clinicopathological definition of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia: consensus panel recommendations from the Second International Workshop on Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia. Semin Oncol 2003; 30(2): 110–115
doi: 10.1053/sonc.2003.50082 pmid:12720118
28 Leleu X, Gay J, Roccaro AM, Moreau AS, Poulain S, Dulery R, Champs BB, Robu D, Ghobrial IM. Update on therapeutic options in Waldenstr?m macroglobulinemia. Eur J Haematol 2009; 82(1): 1–12
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2008.01171.x pmid:19087134
29 Dimopoulos MA, Anagnostopoulos A. Treatment of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2007; 8(2): 144–153
doi: 10.1007/s11864-007-0016-2 pmid:17634838
30 Gertz MA. Waldenstr?m macroglobulinemia: 2012 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management. Am J Hematol 2012; 87(5): 503–510
doi: 10.1002/ajh.23192 pmid:22508368
31 Treon SP, Soumerai JD, Branagan AR, Hunter ZR, Patterson CJ, Ioakimidis L, Briccetti FM, Pasmantier M, Zimbler H, Cooper RB, Moore M, Hill J 2nd, Rauch A, Garbo L, Chu L, Chua C, Nantel SH, Lovett DR, Boedeker H, Sonneborn H, Howard J, Musto P, Ciccarelli BT, Hatjiharissi E, Anderson KC. Thalidomide and rituximab in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Blood 2008; 112(12): 4452–4457
doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-04-150854 pmid:18713945
32 Johnson SA, Birchall J, Luckie C, Oscier DG, Owen RG; Haemato-Oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines on the management of Waldenstr?m macroglobulinaemia. Br J Haematol 2006; 132(6): 683–697
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05948.x pmid:16487169
33 Kawano Y, Nakama T, Hata H, Kimura E, Maruyoshi N, Uchino M, Mitsuya H. Successful treatment with rituximab and thalidomide of POEMS syndrome associated with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. J Neurol Sci 2010; 297(1-2): 101–104
doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2010.06.023 pmid:20673674
34 Duggan DB, Petroni GR, Johnson JL, Glick JH, Fisher RI, Connors JM, Canellos GP, Peterson BA. Randomized comparison of ABVD and MOPP/ABV hybrid for the treatment of advanced Hodgkin’s disease: report of an intergroup trial. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21(4): 607–614
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2003.12.086 pmid:12586796
35 Kuruvilla J. Standard therapy of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program) 2009; 2009(1): 497–506
doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2009.1.497 pmid:20008235
36 García-Sanz R, González-López TJ, Vázquez L, Hermida G, Graciani IF, San Miguel JF. The combination of thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone is potentially useful in highly resistant Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Eur J Haematol 2010; 84(3): 266–270
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2009.01375.x pmid:19912314
37 Smith SM, Grinblatt D, Johnson JL, Niedzwiecki D, Rizzieri D, Bartlett NL, Cheson BD; Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Thalidomide has limited single-agent activity in relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas: a phase II trial of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Br J Haematol 2008; 140(3): 313–319
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06937.x pmid:18217897
38 Kuruvilla J, Song K, Mollee P, Panzarella T, McCrae J, Nagy T, Crump M, Keating A. A phase II study of thalidomide and vinblastine for palliative patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Hematology 2006; 11(1): 25–29
doi: 10.1080/10245330500276592 pmid:16522545
39 Vallet S, Palumbo A, Raje N, Boccadoro M, Anderson KC. Thalidomide and lenalidomide: Mechanism-based potential drug combinations. Leuk Lymphoma 2008; 49(7): 1238–1245
doi: 10.1080/10428190802005191 pmid:18452080
40 Campo E, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES. Mantle-cell lymphoma. Semin Hematol 1999; 36(2): 115–127
41 Zhou Y, Zhang L, Romaguera J, Delasalle K, Han X, Du X, Kwak L, Yi Q, Wang M. Immunotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma: anti-CD20-based therapy and beyond. Am J Hematol 2008; 83(2): 144–149
doi: 10.1002/ajh.21036 pmid:17722077
42 Damaj G, Lefrère F, Delarue R, Varet B, Furman R, Hermine O. Thalidomide therapy induces response in relapsed mantle cell lymphoma. Leukemia 2003; 17(9): 1914–1915
doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2403058 pmid:12970798
43 Ruan J, Martin P, Coleman M, Furman RR, Cheung K, Faye A, Elstrom R, Lachs M, Hajjar KA, Leonard JP. Durable responses with the metronomic rituximab and thalidomide plus prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide regimen in elderly patients with recurrent mantle cell lymphoma. Cancer 2010; 116(11): 2655–2664
doi: 10.1002/cncr.25055 pmid:20235190
44 Witzig TE, Wiernik PH, Moore T, Reeder C, Cole C, Justice G, Kaplan H, Voralia M, Pietronigro D, Takeshita K, Ervin-Haynes A, Zeldis JB, Vose JM. Lenalidomide oral monotherapy produces durable responses in relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(32): 5404–5409
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1169 pmid:19805688
45 Tueger S, Chen FE, Ahsan G, McDonald V, Andrews VE, Madrigal JA, Kazmi MA. Thalidomide induced remission of refractory diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma post-allogeneic SCT. Haematologica 2006; 91(4): e49-e50
46 Ramasamy K, Lim Z, Pagliuca A, Salisbury JR, Mufti GJ, Devereux S. Successful treatment of refractory angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with thalidomide and dexamethasone. Haematologica 2006; 91(1): 117–118
47 Aul C, Bowen DT, Yoshida Y. Pathogenesis, etiology and epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica 1998; 83(1): 71–86
48 Germing U, Aul C, Niemeyer CM, Haas R, Bennett JM. Epidemiology, classification and prognosis of adults and children with myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Hematol 2008; 87(9): 691–699
doi: 10.1007/s00277-008-0499-3 pmid:18575866
49 Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR, Sultan C. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1982; 51(2): 189–199
50 Warlick ED. Epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes: many questions remain. Leuk Lymphoma 2011; 52(2): 163–164
doi: 10.3109/10428194.2011.551021 pmid:21281232
51 Strupp C, Germing U, Aivado M, Misgeld E, Haas R, Gattermann N. Thalidomide for the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia 2002; 16(1): 1–6
doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2402330 pmid:11840256
52 Invernizzi R, Travaglino E, Amici MD, Brugnatelli S, Ramajoli I, Rovati B, Benatti C, Ascari E. Thalidomide treatment reduces apoptosis levels in bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 2005; 29(6): 641–647
doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2004.11.008 pmid:15863203
53 Raza A, Meyer P, Dutt D, Zorat F, Lisak L, Nascimben F, du Randt M, Kaspar C, Goldberg C, Loew J, Dar S, Gezer S, Venugopal P, Zeldis J. Thalidomide produces transfusion independence in long-standing refractory anemias of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood 2001; 98(4): 958–965
doi: 10.1182/blood.V98.4.958 pmid:11493439
54 Chung CY, Lin SF, Chen PM, Chang MC, Kao WY, Chao TY, Hsiao LT, Yen CC, Yang MH, Hwang WS, Lin TL, Chiou TJ, Chang CS. Thalidomide for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome in Taiwan: results of a phase II trial. Anticancer Res 2012; 32(8): 3415–3419
55 Cortes J, Kantarjian H, Albitar M, Thomas D, Faderl S, Koller C, Garcia-Manero G, Giles F, Andreeff M, O’Brien S, Keating M, Estey E. A randomized trial of liposomal daunorubicin and cytarabine versus liposomal daunorubicin and topotecan with or without thalidomide as initial therapy for patients with poor prognosis acute myelogenous leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer 2003; 97(5): 1234–1241
doi: 10.1002/cncr.11180 pmid:12599230
56 Musto P, Falcone A, Sanpaolo G, Bodenizza C. Combination of erythropoietin and thalidomide for the treatment of anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Res 2006; 30(4): 385–388
doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2005.08.020 pmid:16219350
57 Leitch HA, Buckstein R, Shamy A, Storring JM. The immunomodulatory agents lenalidomide and thalidomide for treatment of the myelodysplastic syndromes: a clinical practice guideline. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2013; 85(2): 162–192
doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2012.07.003 pmid:22901762
58 Olitsky SE. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician 2010; 82(7): 785–790
59 Davidson TM, Olitsky SE, Wei JL. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia/avastin. Laryngoscope 2010; 120(2): 432–435
60 Kurstin R. Using thalidomide in a patient with epithelioid leiomyosarcoma and Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Oncology (Williston Park) 2002; 16(1): 21–24
61 Pérez-Encinas M, Rabu?al Martínez MJ, Bello López JL. Is thalidomide effective for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia? Haematologica 2002; 87(8): ELT34
62 Franchini M, Frattini F, Crestani S, Bonfanti C. Novel treatments for epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: a systematic review of the clinical experience with thalidomide. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2012Nov 11. [Epub ahead of print]
doi: 10.1007/s11239-012-0840-5
doi: 10.1007/s11239-012-0840-5 pmid:23143669
63 Lebrin F, Srun S, Raymond K, Martin S, van den Brink S, Freitas C, Bréant C, Mathivet T, Larrivée B, Thomas JL, Arthur HM, Westermann CJ, Disch F, Mager JJ, Snijder RJ, Eichmann A, Mummery CL. Thalidomide stimulates vessel maturation and reduces epistaxis in individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Nat Med 2010; 16(4): 420–428
doi: 10.1038/nm.2131 pmid:20364125
64 Lim SH, McWhannell A, Vora AJ, Boughton BJ. Successful treatment with thalidomide of acute graft-versus-host disease after bone-marrow transplantation. Lancet 1988; 331(8577): 117
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(88)90312-1 pmid:2891954
65 Vogelsang GB, Hess AD, Santos GW. Thalidomide for treatment of graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 1988; 3(5): 393–398
66 Vogelsang GB, Hess AD, Gordon G, Santos GW. Treatment and prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease with thalidomide in a rat model. Transplantation 1986; 41(5): 644–647
doi: 10.1097/00007890-198605000-00018 pmid:2939610
67 Heney D, Norfolk DR, Wheeldon J, Bailey CC, Lewis IJ, Barnard DL. Thalidomide treatment for chronic graft-versus-host disease. Br J Haematol 1991; 78(1): 23–27
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04377.x pmid:2043478
68 Browne PV, Weisdorf DJ, DeFor T, Miller WJ, Davies SM, Filipovich A, McGlave PB, Ramsay NK, Wagner J, Enright H. Response to thalidomide therapy in refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 26(8): 865–869
doi: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1702626 pmid:11081386
69 Cole CH, Rogers PC, Pritchard S, Phillips G, Chan KW. Thalidomide in the management of chronic graft-versus-host disease in children following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 1994; 14(6): 937–942
70 Koc S, Leisenring W, Flowers ME, Anasetti C, Deeg HJ, Nash RA, Sanders JE, Witherspoon RP, Appelbaum FR, Storb R, Martin PJ. Thalidomide for treatment of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 2000; 96(12): 3995–3996
71 Arora M, Wagner JE, Davies SM, Blazar BR, Defor T, Enright H, Miller WJ, Weisdorf DF. Randomized clinical trial of thalidomide, cyclosporine, and prednisone versus cyclosporine and prednisone as initial therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2001; 7(5): 265–273
doi: 11400948" target="_blank">10.1053/ pmid:11400948 pmid:11400948
72 Kulkarni S, Powles R, Sirohi B, Treleaven J, Saso R, Horton C, Atra A, Ortin M, Rudin C, Goyal S, Sankpal S, Meller S, Pinkerton CR, Mehta J, Singhal S. Thalidomide after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: activity in chronic but not in acute graft-versus-host disease. Bone Marrow Transplant 2003; 32(2): 165–170
doi: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1704033 pmid:12838281
73 Ito T, Ando H, Handa H. Teratogenic effects of thalidomide: molecular mechanisms. Cell Mol Life Sci 2011; 68(9): 1569–1579
doi: 10.1007/s00018-010-0619-9 pmid:21207098
74 Zhu YX, Kortuem KM, Stewart AK. Molecular mechanism of action of immune-modulatory drugs thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide in multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma 2013; 4(4): 83–687
doi: 10.3109/10428194.2012.728597 pmid:22966948
75 Stephens TD, Bunde CJ, Fillmore BJ. Mechanism of action in thalidomide teratogenesis. Biochem Pharmacol 2000; 59(12): 1489–1499
doi: 10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00388-3 pmid:10799645
76 Dimopoulos MA, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou V. Adverse effects of thalidomide administration in patients with neoplastic diseases. Am J Med 2004; 117(7): 508–515
doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.040 pmid:15464708
77 van Heeckeren WJ, Sanborn SL, Narayan A, Cooney MM, McCrae KR, Schmaier AH, Remick SC. Complications from vascular disrupting agents and angiogenesis inhibitors: aberrant control of hemostasis and thrombosis. Curr Opin Hematol 2007; 14(5): 468–480
doi: 10.1097/MOH.0b013e3282a6457f pmid:17934353
78 Rajkumar SV. Thalidomide therapy and deep venous thrombosis in multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin Proc 2005; 80(12): 1549–1551
doi: 10.4065/80.12.1549 pmid:16350272
79 Escudier B, Lassau N, Couanet D, Angevin E, Mesrati F, Leborgne S, Garofano A, Leboulaire C, Dupouy N, Laplanche A. Phase II trial of thalidomide in renal-cell carcinoma. Ann Oncol 2002; 13(7): 1029–1035
doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdf213 pmid:12176780
80 Rajkumar SV, Hayman S, Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A, Lacy MQ, Greipp PR, Geyer S, Iturria N, Fonseca R, Lust JA, Kyle RA, Witzig TE. Combination therapy with thalidomide plus dexamethasone for newly diagnosed myeloma. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(21): 4319–4323
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2002.02.116 pmid:12409330
81 Dahut WL, Gulley JL, Arlen PM, Liu Y, Fedenko KM, Steinberg SM, Wright JJ, Parnes H, Chen CC, Jones E, Parker CE, Linehan WM, Figg WD. Randomized phase II trial of docetaxel plus thalidomide in androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22(13): 2532–2539
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2004.05.074 pmid:15226321
82 Desai AA, Vogelzang NJ, Rini BI, Ansari R, Krauss S, Stadler WM. A high rate of venous thromboembolism in a multi-institutional phase II trial of weekly intravenous gemcitabine with continuous infusion fluorouracil and daily thalidomide in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 2002; 95(8): 1629–1636
doi: 10.1002/cncr.10847 pmid:12365009
83 Palumbo A, Rajkumar SV, Dimopoulos MA, Richardson PG, San Miguel J, Barlogie B, Harousseau J, Zonder JA, Cavo M, Zangari M, Attal M, Belch A, Knop S, Joshua D, Sezer O, Ludwig H, Vesole D, Bladé J, Kyle R, Westin J, Weber D, Bringhen S, Niesvizky R, Waage A, von Lilienfeld-Toal M, Lonial S, Morgan GJ, Orlowski RZ, Shimizu K, Anderson KC, Boccadoro M, Durie BG, Sonneveld P, Hussein MA ; International Myeloma Working Group. Prevention of thalidomide- and lenalidomide-associated thrombosis in myeloma. Leukemia 2008; 22(2): 414–423
doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2405062 pmid:18094721
84 Ikhlaque N, Seshadri V, Kathula S, Baumann MA. Efficacy of prophylactic warfarin for prevention of thalidomide-related deep venous thrombosis. Am J Hematol 2006; 81(6): 420–422
doi: 10.1002/ajh.20625 pmid:16680743
85 Zangari M, Siegel E, Barlogie B, Anaissie E, Saghafifar F, Fassas A, Morris C, Fink L, Tricot G. Thrombogenic activity of doxorubicin in myeloma patients receiving thalidomide: implications for therapy. Blood 2002; 100(4): 1168–1171
doi: 10.1182/blood-2002-01-0335 pmid:12149193
86 Silingardi M, Iotti M, Trenti C, Salvarani C, Iori I. Thalidomide, deep venous thrombosis and vasculitis. J Thromb Haemost 2004; 2(11): 2062–2063
doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2004.00952.x pmid:15550052
87 Antoine JC, Camdessanché JP. Peripheral nervous system involvement in patients with cancer. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6(1): 75–86
doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70679-2 pmid:17166804
88 Matthews SJ, McCoy C. Thalidomide: a review of approved and investigational uses. Clin Ther 2003; 25(2): 342–395
doi: 10.1016/S0149-2918(03)80085-1 pmid:12749503
89 Mazumder A, Jagannath S. Thalidomide and lenalidomide in multiple myeloma. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2006; 19(4): 769–780
doi: 10.1016/j.beha.2006.06.006 pmid:16997182
90 Hafstr?m T. Polyneuropathy after neurosedyn (thalidomide) and its prognosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1967; 43(Suppl 32): 31–41
91 Chaudhry V, Cornblath DR, Corse A, Freimer M, Simmons-O’Brien E, Vogelsang G. Thalidomide-induced neuropathy. Neurology 2002; 59(12): 1872–1875
doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000037480.59194.85 pmid:12499476
92 Ghobrial IM, Rajkumar SV. Management of thalidomide toxicity. J Support Oncol 2003; 1(3): 194–205
93 Windebank AJ, Grisold W. Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2008; 13(1): 27–46
doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8027.2008.00156.x pmid:18346229
94 Giannini F, Volpi N, Rossi S, Passero S, Fimiani M, Cerase A. Thalidomide-induced neuropathy: a ganglionopathy? Neurology 2003; 60(5): 877–878
doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000049462.03800.B1 pmid:12629253
95 Briani C, Zara G, Rondinone R, Della Libera S, Ermani M, Ruggero S, Ghirardello A, Zampieri S, Doria A. Thalidomide neurotoxicity: prospective study in patients with lupus erythematosus. Neurology 2004; 62(12): 2288–2290
doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000130499.91775.2C pmid:15210897
96 Molloy FM, Floeter MK, Syed NA, Sandbrink F, Culcea E, Steinberg SM, Dahut W, Pluda J, Kruger EA, Reed E, Figg WD. Thalidomide neuropathy in patients treated for metastatic prostate cancer. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24(8): 1050–1057
doi: 10.1002/mus.1109 pmid:11439380
97 Weber D, Rankin K, Gavino M, Delasalle K, Alexanian R. Thalidomide alone or with dexamethasone for previously untreated multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21(1): 16–19
doi: 10.1200/JCO.2003.03.139 pmid:12506164
98 Curley MJ, Hussein SA, Hassoun PM. Disseminated herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus coinfection in a patient taking thalidomide for relapsed multiple myeloma. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40(6): 2302–2304
doi: 10.1128/JCM.40.6.2302-2304.2002 pmid:12037117
99 Prasad HK, Kaushal V, Mehta P. Isolated thrombocytopenia induced by thalidomide in a patient with multiple myeloma: case report and review of literature. Am J Hematol 2007; 82(9): 855–857
doi: 10.1002/ajh.20949 pmid:17570510
100 Duyvendak M, Naunton M, Kingma BJ, Brouwers JR. Thalidomide-associated thrombocytopenia. Ann Pharmacother 2005; 39(11): 1936–1939
doi: 10.1345/aph.1G256 pmid:16219892
101 Eo WK, Kim SH, Cheon SH, Lee SH, Jeong JS, Kim YS, Chang HK, Suh KS, Kim HY. Toxic epidermal necrolysis following thalidomide and dexamethasone treatment for multiple myeloma: a case report. Ann Hematol 2010; 89(4): 421–422
doi: 10.1007/s00277-009-0810-y pmid:19693501
102 Harris E, Behrens J, Samson D, Rahemtulla A, Russell NH, Byrne JL. Use of thalidomide in patients with myeloma and renal failure may be associated with unexplained hyperkalaemia. Br J Haematol 2003; 122(1): 160–161
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04395_2.x pmid:12823359
[1] Muhammad Furqan,Yamei Chen,Akintunde Akinleye,Judy Sarungbam,Alan Gass,Karen Seiter,Delong Liu. Management of mantle cell leukemia with cardiac involvement leading to cardiogenic shock[J]. Front. Med., 2014, 8(2): 254-258.
[2] Chunquan CAI MD, PhD, Qingjiang ZHANG BM, Changhong SHEN MD, PhD, . Primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma presented with spinal cord compression syndrome[J]. Front. Med., 2009, 3(4): 499-502.
[3] BAI Xiangyang, TANG Duozhuang, ZHU Tao, SUN Lishi, YAN Lingling, LU Yunping, ZHOU Jianfeng, MA Ding. Expression and bioinformatic analysis of lymphoma-associated novel gene KIAA0372[J]. Front. Med., 2007, 1(1): 93-98.
Full text