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Frontiers of Medicine

ISSN 2095-0217

ISSN 2095-0225(Online)

CN 11-5983/R

Postal Subscription Code 80-967

2018 Impact Factor: 1.847

Front Med    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (4) : 388-394     DOI: 10.1007/s11684-012-0233-3
REVIEW |
The epidemic status and risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei City, Yunnan Province, China
Yize Xiao1(), Ying Shao1, Xianjun Yu2, Guangbiao Zhou2()
1. Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming 650022, China; 2. Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Targeted Therapy for Cancer, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
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Abstract  

Xuanwei City (formerly known as Xuanwei County) locates in the northeastern of Yunnan Province and is rich in coal, iron, copper and other mines, especially the smoky (bituminous) coal. Unfortunately, the lung cancer morbidity and mortality rates in this region are among China’s highest, with a clear upward trend from the mid-1970s to mid-2000s. In 2004–2005, the crude death rate of lung cancer was 91.3 per 100 000 in the whole Xuanwei City, while that for Laibin Town in this city was 241.14 per 100 000. The epidemiologic distribution (clustering patterns by population, time, and space) of lung cancer in Xuanwei has some special features, e.g., high incidence in rural areas, high incidence in females, and an early age peak in lung cancer deaths. The main factor that associates with a high rate of lung cancer incidence was found to be indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of smoky coal. To a certain extent, genetic defects are also associated with the high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei. Taken together, lung cancer in this smoky coal combustion region is a unique model for environmental factor-related human cancer, and the current studies indicate that abandoning the use of smoky coal is the key to diminish lung cancer morbidity and mortality.

Keywords lung cancer      Xuanwei      smoky coal combustion      polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons      epidemiology     
Corresponding Authors: Xiao Yize,Email:xyz6292@sina.com; Zhou Guangbiao,Email:gbzhou@ioz.ac.cn   
Issue Date: 05 December 2012
URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-012-0233-3     OR     http://academic.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2012/V6/I4/388
Fig.1  Smoky coal stored by local residents for domestic use.
Fig.2  The mortality rates of lung cancer in Xuanwei City.
Fig.3  The regional distribution of lung cancer in Xuanwei. (A) Retrospective data of a 1990-1992 survey of causes of death. (B) Retrospective data of a 2004-2005 survey of causes of death.
Fig.4  Comparison of the gender composition of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei and other regions or countries.
Fig.5  The relationship between mortality rate and age.
Fig.6  Comparison of hearth cooking stoves, blast furnaces, and improved stoves. (A) Fireplace; (B) Blast furnace; (C) New stove.
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