Frontiers of Physics

ISSN 2095-0462

ISSN 2095-0470(Online)

CN 11-5994/O4

邮发代号 80-965

2019 Impact Factor: 2.502

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Simultaneous measurement-device-independent continuous variable quantum key distribution with realistic detector compensation
Xiao-Dong Wu, Yi-Jun Wang, Duan Huang, Ying Guo
Frontiers of Physics    2020, 15 (3): 31601-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-020-0954-8
摘要   PDF (2287KB)

We propose a novel scheme for measurement-device-independent (MDI) continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) by simultaneously conducting classical communication and QKD, which is called “simultaneous MDI-CVQKD” protocol. In such protocol, each sender (Alice, Bob) can superimpose random numbers for QKD on classical information by taking advantage of the same weak coherent pulse and an untrusted third party (Charlie) decodes it by using the same coherent detectors, which could be appealing in practice due to that multiple purposes can be realized by employing only single communication system. What is more, the proposed protocol is MDI, which is immune to all possible side-channel attacks on practical detectors. Security results illustrate that the simultaneous MDI-CVQKD protocol can secure against arbitrary collective attacks. In addition, we employ phasesensitive optical amplifiers to compensate the imperfection existing in practical detectors. With this technology, even common practical detectors can be used for detection through choosing a suitable optical amplifier gain. Furthermore, we also take the finite-size effect into consideration and show that the whole raw keys can be taken advantage of to generate the final secret key instead of sacrificing part of them for parameter estimation. Therefore, an enhanced performance of the simultaneous MDI-CVQKD protocol can be obtained in finite-size regime.

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Tetrapartite entanglement features of W-Class state in uniform acceleration
Qian Dong, Ariadna J. Torres-Arenas, Guo-Hua Sun, Shi-Hai Dong
Frontiers of Physics    2020, 15 (1): 11602-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0940-1
摘要   PDF (1004KB)

Using the single-mode approximation, we first calculate entanglement measures such as negativity (1–3 and 1–1 tangles) and von Neumann entropy for a tetrapartite W-Class system in noninertial frame and then analyze the whole entanglement measures, the residual π4 and geometric Π4 average of tangles. Notice that the difference between π4 and Π4 is very small or disappears with the increasing accelerated observers. The entanglement properties are compared among the different cases from one accelerated observer to four accelerated observers. The results show that there still exists entanglement for the complete system even when acceleration r tends to infinity. The degree of entanglement is disappeared for the 1–1 tangle case when the acceleration r>0.472473. We reexamine the Unruh effect in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement system in which only one qubit is accelerated is more robust than those entangled systems in which two or three or four qubits are accelerated. It is also found that the von Neumann entropy S of the total system always increases with the increasing accelerated observers, but the Sκξ and Sκζδ with two and three involved noninertial qubits first increases and then decreases with the acceleration parameter r, but they are equal to constants 1 and 0.811278 respectively for zero involved noninertial qubit.

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Error-detected N-photon cluster state generation based on the controlledphase gate using a quantum dot in an optical microcavity
Lei-Xia Liang, Yan-Yan Zheng, Yuan-Xia Zhang, Mei Zhang
Frontiers of Physics    2020, 15 (2): 21601-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0931-2
摘要   PDF (898KB)

We propose a scheme for error-detected generation of an N-photon cluster state with a quantum dot (QD) embedded in a single-sided optical microcavity (QD-cavity system). The basic structure of this scheme is an error-detected controlled-phase (C-phase) gate on the hybrid electron–photon system. In this scheme, the fidelity of N-photon cluster state generation can be reached unity even if low-Q cavity and cavity leakage are considered. By using error detecting, the generation of an N-photon cluster state can be performed by repeating until success, which also leads to a high success probability, compared with other schemes assisted by the QD-cavity system. The error-detected generation of an N-photon cluster state in the highly controllable way may benefit on the quantum network in the future.

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Perfect optical nonreciprocity in a double-cavity optomechanical system
Xiao-Bo Yan, He-Lin Lu, Feng Gao, Feng Gao, Liu Yang
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (5): 52601-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0922-3
摘要   PDF (847KB)

Nonreciprocal devices are indispensable for building quantum networks and ubiquitous in modern communication technology. Here, we propose to take advantage of the interference between optomechanical interaction and linearly-coupled interaction to realize optical nonreciprocal transmission in a double-cavity optomechanical system. Particularly, we have derived essential conditions for perfect optical nonreciprocity and analysed properties of the optical nonreciprocal transmission. These results can be used to control optical transmission in quantum information processing.

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12 superconducting qubits for quantum walks
Heng Fan, Xiaobo Zhu
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (6): 61201-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0915-2
摘要   PDF (780KB)
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Possible phase transition of anisotropic frustrated Heisenberg model at finite temperature
Ai-Yuan Hu, Lin Wen, Guo-Pin Qin, Zhi-Min Wu, Peng Yu, Yu-Ting Cui
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (5): 53601-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0895-2
摘要   PDF (1645KB)

The frustrated spin-1/2 J1aJ1bJ2 antiferromagnet with anisotropy on the two-dimensional square lattice was investigated, where the parameters J1aand J1b represent the nearest neighbor exchanges and along the x and y directions, respectively. J2 represents the next-nearest neighbor exchange. The anisotropy includes the spatial and exchange anisotropies. Using the double-time Green’s function method, the effects of the interplay of exchanges and anisotropy on the possible phase transition of the Néel state and stripe state were discussed. Our results indicated that, in the case of anisotropic parameter 0≤η<1, the Néel and stripe states can exist and have the same critical temperature as long as J2 = J1b/2. Under such parameters, a first-order phase transformation between the Néel and stripe states can occur below the critical point. For J2J1b/2, our results indicate that the Néel and stripe states can also exist, while their critical temperatures differ. When J2>J1b/2, a first-order phase transformation between the two states may also occur. However, for J2<J1b/2, the Néel state is always more stable than the stripe state.

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Plug-and-play dual-phase-modulated continuous-variable quantum key distribution with photon subtraction
Xiao-Dong Wu, Yi-Jun Wang, Hai Zhong, Qin Liao, Ying Guo
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (4): 41501-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0881-8
摘要   PDF (2603KB)

Plug-and-play dual-phase-modulated continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) protocol can effectively solve the security loopholes associated with transmitting local oscillator (LO). However, this protocol has larger excess noise compared with one-way Gaussian-modulated coherent-states scheme, which limits the maximal transmission distance to a certain degree. In this paper, we show a reliable solution for this problem by employing non-Gaussian operation, especially, photon subtraction operation, which provides a way to improve the performance of plug-and-play dual-phase-modulated CVQKD protocol. The photon subtraction operation shows experimental feasibility in the plug-andplay configuration since it can be implemented under current technology. Security results indicate that the photon subtraction operation can evidently enhance the maximal transmission distance of the plug-and-play dual-phase-modulated CVQKD protocol, which effectively makes up the drawback of the original one. Furthermore, we achieve the tighter bound of the transmission distance by considering the finite-size effect, which is more practical compared with that achieved in the asymptotic limit.

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Large magnetocaloric effect in van der Waals crystal CrBr3
Xiaoyun Yu, Xiao Zhang, Qi Shi, Shangjie Tian, Hechang Lei, Kun Xu, Hideo Hosono
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (4): 43501-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-019-0883-6
摘要   PDF (2503KB)

We study the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in van der Waals (vdW) crystal CrBr3. Bulk CrBr3 exhibits a second-order paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition with TC = 33 K. The maximum magnetic entropy change −ΔSM near TC is about 7.2 J·kg−1·K−1 with the maximum adiabatic temperature change ΔTmaxad = 2.37 K and the relative cooling power RCP= 191.5 J·kg−1 at μ0H = 5 T, all of which are remarkably larger than those in CrI3. These results suggest that the vdW crystal CrBr3 is a promising candidate for the low-dimensional magnetic refrigeration in low temperature region.

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Dynamical characteristic of measurement uncertainty under Heisenberg spin models with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interactions
Ying-Yue Yang, Wen-Yang Sun, Wei-Nan Shi, Fei Ming, Dong Wang, Liu Ye
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (3): 31601-null.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0880-1
摘要   PDF (2112KB)

The dynamics of measurement’s uncertainty via entropy for a one-dimensional Heisenberg XY Z mode is examined in the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) interaction. It shows that the uncertainty of interest is intensively in connection with the filed’s temperature, the direction-oriented coupling strengths and the magnetic field. It turns out that the stronger coupling strengths and the smaller magnetic field would induce the smaller measurement’s uncertainty of interest within the current spin model. Interestingly, we reveal that the evolution of the uncertainty exhibits quite different dynamical behaviors in antiferromagnetic (Ji>0) and ferromagnetic (Ji<0) frames. Besides, an analytical solution related to the systematic entanglement (i.e., concurrence) is also derived in such a scenario. Furthermore, it is found that the DM-interaction is desirably working to diminish the magnitude of the measurement’s uncertainty in the region of high-temperature. Finally, we remarkably offer a resultful strategy to govern the entropy-based uncertainty through utilizing quantum weak measurements, being of fundamentally importance to quantum measurement estimation in the context of solid-state-based quantum information processing and computation.

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Bohm’s approach to quantum mechanics: Alternative theory or practical picture?
A. S. Sanz
Frontiers of Physics    2019, 14 (1): 11301-.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s11467-018-0853-4
摘要   PDF (7170KB)

Since its inception Bohmian mechanics has been generally regarded as a hidden-variable theory aimed at providing an objective description of quantum phenomena. To date, this rather narrow conception of Bohm’s proposal has caused it more rejection than acceptance. Now, after 65 years of Bohmian mechanics, should still be such an interpretational aspect the prevailing appraisal? Why not favoring a more pragmatic view, as a legitimate picture of quantum mechanics, on equal footing in all respects with any other more conventional quantum picture? These questions are used here to introduce a discussion on an alternative way to deal with Bohmian mechanics at present, enhancing its aspect as an efficient and useful picture or formulation to tackle, explore, describe and explain quantum phenomena where phase and correlation (entanglement) are key elements. This discussion is presented through two complementary blocks. The first block is aimed at briefly revisiting the historical context that gave rise to the appearance of Bohmian mechanics, and how this approach or analogous ones have been used in different physical contexts. This discussion is used to emphasize a more pragmatic view to the detriment of the more conventional hidden-variable (ontological) approach that has been a leitmotif within the quantum foundations. The second block focuses on some particular formal aspects of Bohmian mechanics supporting the view presented here, with special emphasis on the physical meaning of the local phase field and the associated velocity field encoded within the wave function. As an illustration, a simple model of Young’s two-slit experiment is considered. The simplicity of this model allows to understand in an easy manner how the information conveyed by the Bohmian formulation relates to other more conventional concepts in quantum mechanics. This sort of pedagogical application is also aimed at showing the potential interest to introduce Bohmian mechanics in undergraduate quantum mechanics courses as a working tool rather than merely an alternative interpretation.

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