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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

ISSN 2095-2201

ISSN 2095-221X(Online)

CN 10-1013/X

Postal Subscription Code 80-973

2018 Impact Factor: 3.883

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2017, Vol. 11 Issue (1) : 12    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-017-0901-2
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Pollution of hazardous substances in industrial construction and demolition wastes and their multi-path risk within an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant
Sheng Huang1,Xin Zhao2,Yanqiu Sun1,Jianli Ma3,Xiaofeng Gao1,Tian Xie1,Dongsheng Xu4,Yi Yu5,Youcai Zhao1()
1. The State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
2. Shanghai Chengpei Enterprise Management Consulting Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200232, China
3. Tianjin Academy of Environmental Sciences, Tianjin 300191, China
4. Debin Environmental Protection and Technology Holding Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200092, China
5. Shanghai Design Institute in Environmental Sanitary Engineering, Shanghai 200092, China
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Abstract

Pollution pattern of metals and organic pesticide in demolition waste is studied.

Organophosphorus pesticide can be everlasting on surface of demolition waste.

Leaching potential of pollutants from simulated and onsite waste varies spatially.

Direct oral and dermal ingestion, leaching potential into water exceed the limit.

Implications for demolition waste management in industrial plants are proposed.

Exploration of heavy metals and organic pollutants, their leaching capacity along with health and environmental risks in contaminated industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) within a pesticide manufacturing plant were investigated. A maximum content of 90.8 mg·kg−1 Cd was found present in the wastes, which might originate from phosphorus rocks and industrial sulfuric acid used in pesticide production processes. An average concentration of 979.8 mg·kg−1 dichlorovos and other 11 organophosphorus pesticide were also detected. Relatively high leaching rates of around 4.14‰ were obtained from laboratory simulated ICDW using both glacial acetic acid- sodium hydroxide and deionized water. Pesticide pollutants had the strongest tendency to retaining on dry bricks (leaching rate 1.68‰) compared to mortar-coatings, etc. due to their different physical characteristics and octanol-water partioning coefficient. Mobility of pesticide from on-site ICDW by water was spatially correlated to waste types, process sections and human activities, with a flux of leaching rate between 5.9‰ to 27.4%. Risk-based corrective action (RBCA) model was used to simulate the risk of contaminated ICDW debris randomly scattered. Oral and dermal ingestion amount by local workers was 9.8 × 10−3 and 1.9 × 10−2 mg·(kg·d)−1, respectively. Potential leaching risk to aquatic systems exceeded the limit for nearly 75% waste. Environmental and health risk exceedance was found in most ICDW, while the risk value of the most severely contaminated brick waste was 660 times beyond critical level. Implications for waste management involving construction and deconstruction work, waste transferring and regulation supplying were also provided.

Keywords Industrial demolition wastes      Heavy metals      Pesticides      Leaching characteristics      Risk assessment      Waste management     
PACS:     
Fund: 
Corresponding Authors: Youcai Zhao   
Issue Date: 10 January 2017
 Cite this article:   
Sheng Huang,Xin Zhao,Yanqiu Sun, et al. Pollution of hazardous substances in industrial construction and demolition wastes and their multi-path risk within an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2017, 11(1): 12.
 URL:  
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-017-0901-2
http://academic.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2017/V11/I1/12
variableintroductionvalue (for adult)
BWthe bodyweight (kg)60
EFthe exposure frequency (d·a−1)261
EDthe exposure duration (a)30
IRthe inhalation rate of waste (mg·d−1)100
SAthe skin surface area available for contact (cm2)2800
ATthe averaging time (non-carcinogens/carcinogens)9165/25550
AFthe waste to skin adherence factor (mg·cm−2)0.2
ABSthe absorption factorvary with pollutants
TSPthe total suspended particulate content in air (mg·m−3)0.3
INHinhaled amount of air by an adult15
PIAFretention ratio of inhalable waste particles in body0.75
ET(out)proportion of the daily exposure time outdoor1/3
ET(ind)proportion of the daily exposure time indoor1/3
IRwthe ingestion rate of underground water (L·d−1)1
IRfthe ingestion rate of food (kg·d−1)1.2
Tab.1  Exposure variables involved in this study
Fig.1  Heavy metal concentrations in different ICDW of the pesticide manufacturing plant
CdCrCuAsPb
Cr?0.010a)
?0.484b)
Cu0.289
0.109
−0.069???
0.387
As0.222
0.174
−0.357???
0.061
0.233
0.161
Pb0.231
0.163
−0.048???
0.420
0.544
0.007
0.279
0.117
Zn0.044
0.428
0.183
0.220
0.345
0.068
0.074
0.379
0.720
0.000
Tab.2  Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and the associated P values for heavy metals
Fig.2  Sources of cadmium in phorate processing
Fig.3  Effect of different leaching conditions on leaching of pesticide from ICDW, (a) leaching extractants; (b) storage vessels; (c) ICDW types
Fig.5  Leaching behavior of various pesticide pollutants from ICDW by water. (a) triethylphosphorothioate, (b) phorate, (c) parathion, (d) diethylphosphorodithioate, (e) phorate sulfone, (f) SOPPs (OPPs: organophosphorus pesticides)
pollutantstandards for the aquatic environment /(mg·L−1)guidance value of the highest concentration of pollutants in soil /(mg·kg−1)source of standardsexceedance in aquatic system (% of all waste)exceedance in C&D waste (% of all waste)
phorate20.075Alberta Tier 1 Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines [33]50100
parathion0.0137.2/95
terbufos10.08/16.7
chlorpyrifos0.00249/10
dichlorvos0.1Allowable soil concentrations in the former Soviet Union [34]/16.7
Tab.3   Reference value for evaluation and the overall exceedance of pollutants
pollutantmean concentration (mg·kg−1)exposure time (d)averaging time (a)oral ingestion [mg·(kg·d)−1]outdoor breathing ingestion
[mg·(kg·d)−1]
indoor breathing ingestion [mg·(kg·d)−1]
vaporparticlevaporparticle
phorate16868783091652.4 × 10−41.2 × 10−41.0 × 10−42.5 × 10−41.6 × 10−4
parathion65219.0 × 10−36.2 × 10−54.0 × 10−5
terbufos1702.4 × 10−41.6 × 10−61.1 × 10−6
chlorpyrifos167.52.4 × 10−41.6 × 10−61.0 × 10−6
dichlorvos163.3255508.3 × 10−53.6 × 10−75.6 × 10−7
Pollutantmean concentration (mg·kg−1)exposure time (d)averaging time (a)dermal ingestion [mg·(kg·d)−1]ingestion amount through drinking water [mg·(kg·d)−1]ingestion amount through meals [mg·(kg·d)−1]
phorate16868783091651.3 × 10−20.018
parathion65215.2 × 10−3
terbufos1701.4 × 10−4
chlorpyrifos167.51.4 × 10−4
dichlorvos163.3255504.7 × 10−5
Tab.4  Ingestion amount of organophosphorus pesticide in ICDW in various ways
pollutantsSFo
(kg·d·mg−1)
SFi
(kg·d·mg−1)
SFd
(kg·d·mg−1)
RfDo
[mg·(kg·d)−1]
RfDi
(mg·m−3)
RfDd
[mg·(kg·d)−1]
(non)carcinogenic value by oral ingestion(non)carcinogenic value by dermal ingestionnon-carcinogenic value by outdoor inhalationnon-carcinogenic value by indoor inhalationnon-carcinogenic value by drinking water
phorate0.00050.000548.0026.0036
parathion0.0060.00050.0061.500.870.1240.08
terbufos0.0001250.0001251.921.12
chlorpyrifos0.0030.0030.080.05
dichlorvos0.290.290.00050.00050.0005
non-carcinogenic value of all pollutants51.528.00.10.1
carcinogenic value of dichlorvos0.0000240.000014
Tab.5  Toxicity values and risk assessment of organic pesticides in ICDW (values in bold exceeded the risk limits)
ICDW(non)carcinogenic value by oral ingestion(non)carcinogenic value by dermal ingestionnon-carcinogenic value by drinking water
WS-13.549.98
WS-29.5526.91
WS-3215.79607.85
WS-41.163.25
BK-1199.19561.09374.22
BK-2234.72661.17439.53
BK-381.37229.210.58*
BK-423.3965.88
BK-50.44*1.25
BK-63.6710.34
BK-710.1728.666.74
BK-81.724.8670.08
DS-12.898.130.00*
DS-22.717.64
DS-30.65*1.84120.35
DS-41.293.63
DS-51.744.91
DS-612.9436.46
GT-1229.45646.3542.89
Tab.6  Risk evaluation of total OPPs in ICDW across the plant
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